Embarking on a celestial adventure, Chandrayaan-3 promises to unravel the Moon’s mysteries through its innovative components. This mission, orchestrated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), features a propulsion module, a robust lander, and an intrepid rover. Join us as we delve into the information about Chandrayaan-3, from its unique design to its ambitious objectives, all aimed at enhancing our understanding of the lunar landscape.
Information About Chandrayaan-3
Mission Name: Chandrayaan-3
Purpose: Indian mission to explore the Moon
Organization: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
- Lander: Named Vikram
- Rover: Named Pragyan
Similar to: Chandrayaan-2 mission (same lander and rover setup)
Lander’s Job: To safely touch down on the lunar surface
Rover’s Job: To explore and gather data on the Moon’s surface
Propulsion Module: Carried lander and rover to lunar orbit
Lunar Orbit Preparation: Lander and rover configuration sent to lunar orbit
Liftoff Date: Launched on 14 July 2023
Landing Date: Landed near lunar south pole on 23 August 2023
Achievement: India became the first nation to successfully land a spacecraft near the lunar south pole
Global Rank: Fourth country to ever achieve a Moon landing
Launch Vehicle: ISRO launched Chandrayaan-2 using the Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3). It included an orbiter, a lander, and a rover.
Lander and Rover Plan: The lander was supposed to gently touch down on the Moon’s surface in September 2019. Its task was to release the Pragyan rover. However, the lander crashed due to a deviation from its intended path during the landing attempt.
Continued Missions: After Chandrayaan-2, ISRO planned more lunar missions, including Chandrayaan-3.
European Space Tracking Support: The European Space Tracking, managed by the European Space Agency (ESA), would assist Chandrayaan-3. A new agreement between ESA and ISRO was established to provide tracking support for ISRO’s missions, including upcoming projects like India’s first human spaceflight (Gaganyaan) and the Aditya-L1 solar research mission. In return, ESA’s future missions will also receive tracking help from ISRO.
Chandrayaan-3 Mission Objectives:
Safe Lunar Landing: Chandrayaan-3 aims to successfully and gently land a lander on the Moon’s surface.
Rover’s Abilities: The mission will also demonstrate the rover’s capabilities on the lunar surface.
Material Study: Chandrayaan-3 plans to carry out experiments and observations using materials found on the Moon’s surface. This will help scientists better understand the composition of the Moon.
Chandrayaan-3 Spacecraft: Components and Design
Here’s the information about the spacecraft design, components, and payloads of Chandrayaan-3:
Propulsion Module: This part carries the lander and rover setup to a lunar orbit about 100 kilometers from the Moon’s surface. It looks like a box and has a large solar panel on one side. On top, there’s a cylinder known as the Intermodular Adapter Cone that holds the lander.
Lander: The lander’s job is to make a gentle landing on the Moon. It’s also shaped like a box, with four landing legs and four thrusters that help it land softly. It has engines that can control their thrust power and direction, allowing it to maintain the right attitude (orientation). This feature helps avoid mistakes that caused issues in the previous mission. The lander is built stronger, with better instruments and backup systems. It’s designed to land in a specific region based on images from a previous mission.
Rover: The rover has six wheels and weighs around 26 kilograms (57 pounds). It can travel up to 500 meters and has dimensions like a small box. This rover is expected to find out things like what the Moon’s surface is made of, if there’s any water ice, what history of impacts it has seen, and how its atmosphere has changed over time.
Payloads: What Instruments Are on Board
Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE): Measures the temperature and how heat moves in the Moon’s surface.
Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA): Detects and studies any shaking or movements on the Moon’s surface.
Langmuir Probe (LP): Figures out how much plasma (charged particles) is around the landing area.
Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Determines what elements are in the Moon’s surface and what minerals make it up.
Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS): Identifies the elements in rocks and soil by shooting them with a laser.
Propulsion Module: Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE): From lunar orbit, studies Earth‘s characteristics using light in the near-infrared range.
Chandrayaan-3 Funding and Cost:
Here’s the information about the funding and cost of Chandrayaan-3:
Initial Funding Request: In December 2019, ISRO asked for the initial money to start the Chandrayaan-3 project. They needed ₹75 crore (around US$9.4 million). Out of this, ₹60 crore (around US$7.5 million) was for buying equipment, machines, and other things needed for the project. The remaining ₹15 crore (around US$1.9 million) was for regular costs.
Project Confirmation: The former chairman of ISRO, K. Sivan, confirmed that Chandrayaan-3 was a real project. He said that the total cost would be about ₹615 crore (equivalent to ₹721 crore or US$90 million in 2023).
Information source: Wikipedia